in the chapters 4 and 6 in Understanding Comics by Scott McCloud, McCloud discusses what time and space means in comics and what it is, he also goes into detail on the formula, combination, and measurement of words and pictures in a comic.
McCloud simplifies the duration of a comic and how un-instantaneous they are. he briefly discusses frames or panels, how they are iconic and "have no fixed or absolute meaning." Thus panels merely "act as a sort of general indicator that time or space is being divided." McCloud makes the reader realize that words are time, pictures are time, and sound is time. He explains time and space as a whole and how they are widely related. So as we overlook time and the relationship between comics; as readers we must guess as to the length or duration of a sequence of panels. The author then goes on to explore and study how the shape of a panel can interfere with our perception on time. The shape and size of panels are profoundly varied. The longer the panel the greater the length and the shorter the panel the greater the length, speaking in terms of time. As readers and viewers our participation is needed and asked for; in the subject of the way or direction that we read a comic whether we follow from right to left, left to right or up or down. Moving images is then brought up and is said that it was not until the mid 1800's that specific motions were portrayed in comics. The chapter is then concluded with a variety of sequences depicting motion and how sound and motion are time.
Chapter 6 begins with, how as children we used words and images interchangeably and how comics use a similar strategy by combining images with words and how useful that is to direct a story. McCloud begins explaining how books with pictures eventually become books without pictures with the progression of time. He states how pictures were once the prominent factor, by showing a 15,000 year old cave painting from the golden age and how pictures existed and meant far more then the written word. Pictures, symbols, and icons acted as a language and represented words in a sense. By the early 1800's pictures and writing drifted extremely far apart. though that was all changed when a fellow by the name of Rodolphie Topffer collided the two forms forms and made history! McCloud then thoroughly examines how an astronomical amount of human experiences can be brought to ones attention in either words or pictures, due to that fact comics have been categorized with the art of storytelling. He then goes over the different ways in which both words and pictures can be combined and how they are balanced and measured.
i think both chapters were well written, informative and easy to comprehend. McClouds explanation of the mixture of words and pictures was great. In my opinion pictures are need as well as words to tell a story. Not just one or the other. You gain much more by having both images and words in a sequence. Time is also an important factor when really realizing it, the duration of comics is brought to our attention and through that we notice how comics can be shortened or lengthened by a single word sound or picture.