04 June 2014

29 May 2014

Presentation SD

My software for powerpoint wasn't working properly, so I converted it in a video.

I hope its fine with everyone :)

26 May 2014

Assimilation or Acculturation?

Patel, Jay. “To Assimilate or Acculturate.” Interpolations: A Jornal of Academic Writing n. pag. Web. Spring 2012.

The essay, “To Assimilate or to Acculturate” stresses the impact that assimilation can have on an individual’s identity. The author of the essay uses his own experiences and the idea’s of others to support this idea in an essay he wrote for the Sociology Department at his college, The University of Maryland.  In his essay he focuses on both the positive and negative impacts that assimilation can have on an individuals identity.  Although he points out that in many ways it would be easier for all people to accept assimilation in order to be accepted by their peers who make up the cultural majority,  he also emphasizes the negative effects it can have on ones identity.  For example, he mentions how the loss of ones old cultural identity can make it much harder to relate to friends and family who may be living a lifestyle that still fully incorporates ones original cultural traditions and practices.  He even mentions that his assimilation had a negative influence on his relationships with his parents who seemed disappointed with how quickly he abandoned their Indian culture to accept the traditions and cultures of mainstream America. However, he also makes it clear in his writing that he greatly benefitted from assimilating because it allowed him to be accepted by his peers and that most young children from other cultures are in many ways forced to assimilate if they want to ever have a chance of blending in with the crowd.  For this reason, he mentioned that he had learned to start eating the typical American foods for lunch in order to not be criticized or to prevent him self from seeming different than everyone else around him.  The author of this essay explained that by assimilating in such a way, he was, “more comfortable being a part of society and no longer felt like an outsider.”  He was sick and tired of being asked questions or hearing rude comments whenever he brought in a traditional Indian snack such as “handvo” to lunch.  It was just easier for him to conform by bringing some typical American snacks such as cookies and sandwiches.
         This part of the essay about changing what he brings to lunch in order to fit in reminded of Jin Wang’s own experience in the graphic novel American Born Chinese. In the story, Jin was often ridiculed or asked rude disrespectful questions whenever he brought traditional Chinese foods for lunch. In fact, one punky kid even suggested that Jin was eating dog.  Just like the author of this essay, Jin felt that he would be better off if he abandoned his own cultural traditions in order to adopt the typical American ones.  To avoid being made fun of as well as trying to gain acceptance amongst his white peers, Jin started eating foods that were considered more “normal” for the typical American boy to eat for lunch. 
      This essay in many ways inspired my thesis for my next essay. For example, I plan on arguing that whenever someone is growing up in a family with a different cultural background than the typical white majority of the United States, that an individuals’ personal identity will benefit most from acculturating rather than assimilating.  The author mentions how in many ways as he grew older he wishes he could have retained more of his Indian culture that he was more in touch with as a child. The author explains how he gradually lost his fluency in two different native Indian languages that he used to be able to speak really well when he had lived in India with his grandparents.  Multiple times throughout his essay the author emphasizes that the youth and older generations view assimilation in many different ways.  The older generations try as much as possible to hold on to their own traditional beliefs and customs. The younger generations in the United States seem to be eager to fit in to become part of the crowd. They are too afraid to stand out and simply want to do whatever would be easier for them to make new friends.  However, the author talks about his own regrets of assimilating too quickly. In many ways, he feels that when someone assimilates that they are giving up what makes them unique and special when compared to everyone else.  As a result of his guilt over assimilating and losing much of his Indian cultural identity, the author discusses how he makes sure he does certain things such as attend temple regularly to be able to hold on to as much of his Indian cultural identity as possible. He points out that it might be best for people to acculturate instead in order to stand out from the crowd as an individual rather than being just like everyone else. 

         Last but not least, although the author of this essay and I agree that acculturation is the best choice for someone coming from a different culture into a new one, his essay also makes many strong claims against acculturation. He provides evidence that argues for both sides of this argument but definitely makes it clear that it is much easier and natural for young children to assimilate when they are entering a new society with a culture that is nothing like their own.  He stresses that many children who want to avoid feeling alienated from their new peers, attempt to blend in with the rest of society. Joining the major society gives immigrants an initial feeling of being welcome into the new nation.” Although, the author understands this idea better than most due to his own experiences, he clearly feels that acculturation is the better choice for all. 

Multicultural Writers and Their Search for Identity

Nicole Smith. “Multicultural Writers and the Quest for Identity”                   Article Myriad. n.p. Web. 13 May 2014.


         The article “Multicultural Writers and the Quest for Identity” was found on a free website known as ArticleMyriad.com.  This article analyzes the writings of three different multicultural writers who struggled with being comfortable with their own identities in different ways. Most importantly the article was able to successfully analyze the perspective of the writers’ quests for identity while growing up in white world even though all three writers came from different ethnic backgrounds. One writer was Langston Hughes, an African American writer and the piece of writing focused on was “Theme for English B”.  The second writer discussed in the article was Anna Lisa Raya, who was from a Mexican background. Nicole Smith focused on Raya’s “It’s Hard Enough Being Me” which discusses her struggles growing up as a Latina in a white dominated world.  The last writer discussed was Amy Tan who wrote about her childhood desire to be accepted by White Culture and her initial shame of her Chinese heritage, which she later learned to appreciate. The article basically sums up their writing while pointing out how hard; life could be for someone growing up in America when their own ethnicity or culture is not part of the dominant white culture.
           I chose to write about this article for three different reasons. First of all, I loved how it discussed Langston Hughes “Theme for English B”.  This brought me back to the beginning of the semester when we had to read it for class.  Secondly, I loved how it mentioned Amy Tan’s “Fish Cheeks”.  This was a piece of literature one of my former high school English teachers used to prepare my class for the regents. I remember certain lines from it as if it were yesterday.  As some one who hates my own nose, I can remember how I related to her when she said that she had dreamed of having a “slim new American nose”.  Being of mixed race, I had always hated my nose.  I remember that while growing up, I always wished I had a nose like the white actresses on television. I always felt that mine was too big.  It wasn’t until recently when my boyfriend told me that my nose was unique and one of the things that he had loved most about me that I started to feel less conscious about my own nose.  Lastly, I picked this article because it relates very much to the topic of my second essay for English class. 
         My second essay focused on how students from nontraditional (white) American cultures who moved to new schools where the majority of their classmates were white, would try to adapt to the new culture and cultures around them and as a result would often distance themselves from the cultures that they had originally known as their own.  In particular, the main character from American Born Chinese, Jin Wang, was ashamed to be Chinese American and felt that if he could distance himself from his Asian culture, that he would have a better chance of being accepted by his white peers.  The person that Jin wanted to impress most was actually a white girl named Amelia.  He was so self-conscious about his own identity that he even wished that he could take on a new identity as a white boy named Danny. He even wanted to grow out his hair like a popular white boy in the story because he was convinced it would improve his chances of getting the girl that he desired.  Jin’s struggle with his identity is very similar to the one that Amy Tan went through as a child.  In “Fish Cheeks” she said, “For Christmas I prayed for this blond-haired boy, Robert, and a slim new American nose.”  Just like Jin, she was deeply ashamed of her Asian culture and wished to be able to conform to the typical white American culture because she felt that she would have a better chance of capturing the heart of the white classmate she had a crush on.  The quote listed above also points out that she seemed to hate her own physical appearance. Just like Jin, somewhere in her upbringing she had been influenced to believe that if she looked more white than Asian, that she would be more liked by her peers. However, just like Jin at the end of American Born Chinese, Amy seemed to have learned to appreciate her own identity and cultural background. Lastly, Nicole Smith’s article also analyzed the writing and experiences of two other multicultural writers from two different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.  Just like how Richard Rodriguez was able to add a different and unique perspective about the struggles of finding comfort with ones identity being from a Latin background, Anna Lisa Raya’s “It’s Hard Enough Being Me” adds an interesting spin on a young Latina’s experiences while on a quest for Identity in the United States.  The addition of Langston Hughes in the article gives readers yet another unique perspective of what it can be like growing up in a world where your own culture and ethnicity do not fit in with the majority of those around you.  


Saw this on twitter and thought it was relevant. 

20 May 2014

feeder 3.2


Nelson, Sarah w. Educational Administration Quarterly. Feb2014, Vol. 50 Issue 1, p67-95. 29p

In this article they express the importance of language. the article informs you on how when cultures change also does language and that people must be opened minded to change; that by not wanting to take part you are then denying the growth of the change in a way. the article then goes on to address the fact the after years of testing with proves that people learn commutate better when able to use language which one is most comfortable with.

"Language, and relationships, which are at the heart of culturally responsive teaching, learning, and leading. Implications: More than 30 years of school reform efforts have failed to address inequitable educational outcomes. The results of this study suggest the ineffectiveness of reform efforts may be due in part to educators’ deficit beliefs and lack of cultural knowledge, two areas preparation and professional development programs must better address."

 This statement in the article connects to my essay because it clearly lets you know briefly how then connection between language and culture go hand and hand by elders and others who don't agree with the culture change is actually failing the youth because of the lack of the cultural knowledge.

Technology and Literacy (Feeder 3.2)

  Leung, Louis. Effects of Internet Connectedness and Information Literacy on Quality of 

               life. "Social Indicators Research", Vol. 98, No. 2 (2010), 273-290. Print.

      The article, “Effects of Internet Connectedness and Information Literacy on Quality of life” emphasizes the importance of technological literacy along with the information literacy. Author has shown detailed research  to explain that how technological (i.e.internet) and informational literacies contribute to have a high quality of life. Information literacy includes skills like reading, ability to find out what kind of information is needed and how to use the required information in an effective way. But it is not enough, now-a-days, these skills should be applied on the use of technology as a tool to research, organize and to communicate information. As internet has made our life more connected ( Internet connectedness), therefore, we have more efficient and easy access to resources/information as compare to the system decades before. Moreover, the availability of softwares, word programs and online “valid” information about all the aspects have make it easy to learn about anything in a proper and easy way.

          While relating this article to my claim that one can become liberated and independent by reading and learning about the world, it shows that reading isn’t enough to learn and to be educated, these days. A person should have to be aware of technological literacy and inter connectedness to have a better quality of life. As it is said “Information Technology Literacy can be considered a 21st-century form of literacy in which researching and communicating information in a digital environment area as important as reading writing were in earlier decades” (#273). It shows one should’ve to be literate about technology to have a successful life in these days, unlike Marjane who found her way to liberation only by reading intensive books about socialists and politicians, she didn’t had to use technology that much because there’s a huge difference in social and educational environment now as comparing to decades before. Also  in Hunger of Memory, it could’ve been more easy for Richard to socialize and find his identity by using internet, communicating with people,and having an easy access to learn English. Because it's shown in article that “the internet’s potential (via home internet access) to inform informationally disadvantaged or low-income families to experience powerful emotional and psychological transformations in identity, self esteem, personal empowerment,a new sense of confidence, and social standing or development of personal relationships in the internet” (#278). in other words, having an easy access to solutions and widespread connection by communicating can reduce the struggle with personal issues.
In the article " The Dangers Of A Single Story " by Tariro Mavondo, she basically talks about her life growing up in Australia as a African-Australian.
As the only black kid in the neighborhood she had to go through a grueling initiation into suburbia. She was forced to drink urine in order for her to play with the other kids. As well as, having her hair pulled every time she would walk on by. In addition,  she speaks about a refuge from Somalia that comes to hide  and be safe but she ends up dangling off the edge of a cliff because of to local teenagers that took her under their wings and did not take care of her. The Somalian girl ended up falling to her death. At the age twenty-four, Tariro end up being one of the first African-born acting graduates  of the Victorian college of the Art's. She then goes on to get an audition for a lead part and she expresses that she is going for the lead part but so happens that she is African-Australian. 
This article proves my claim about how when you tell a story with just one perspective that you will only get one side of the story and it will not be whole. In the article she goes by saying "The black kid in neighbourhood, I was forced to undergo a grueling initiation into life in contemporary suburbia." In this particular sentence she gave us only her perspective in a "grueling initiation" which someone else might have said that it was not so grueling but just a bit mean. She tells her story in just her perspective and does not have a different perspective in her story.

New Identity

Skyrme, Gillian. "Entering The University: The Differentiated Experience Of Two Chinese International Students In A New Zealand University." Studies In Higher Education 32.3 (2007): 357-372.Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 May 2014.

This article argues the struggle that Chinese international students attending university in New Zealand have, trying to figure out their identity in new setting. Gillian skyrme began a study with 12 international Chinese students to analyze their expectations of what they were studying, problems they might have with the new learning styles. Skyrme focuses on 2 of the 12 students, Mike and Saul. She reveals the different struggles Saul and Mike have with their new identities as university students, and learning what they were being thought. Throughout the article it reveals how one of the students was preoccupied with how to learn the new material; one was more focused on what he was being thought. Skyrme states that a big part in how second language learners, prefer learning is by hands on experience, but that not a lot universities do not share the same thought. “Saul’s sense of self was very much involved in his propensity to express himself orally. He sought a way to be a student which did not marginalize that aspect of his identity, and had no strong voices countering his resistance to reading and showing him its value. Mike, who was rather introverted and avoided verbal interaction, was quite happy to strive for that route, difficult though it still proved to be” (pg. 14). This quote shows how two different people in the same situation have different ways of dealing with it. This is an interesting Part of the article because I can see their two different personalities and how they use it to their advantage. It somewhat goes with my way of thinking that you should keep with what you’re good at, if it helps you understand better. 

19 May 2014

social identity 2

Ashmore, Richard D., Lee J. Jussim, and David Wilder, eds. Social identity, intergroup conflict, and conflict reduction. Vol. 3. Oxford University Press, 2001. 19 May 2014.

Self and identity are central to understanding human thought, feeling and action and plays an important role in inter-group conflicts. They account for interrelationships between the individual and larger social groups. Therefore, social identity as mentioned by Ashmore in this excerpt, can create and intensify inter-group conflicts, while inter-group conflicts can influence social identity. The relationships an individual has on the individual or group level can lead to inter-group conflict causing a social problem. In order to resolve this social problem, we must address social identity and inter-group conflict issues in an attempt to reduce inter-group conflicts.

"Intergroup conflict influences social identity." I believe this  relates to my thinking of the topic because it's about what affects your social identity. I do believe that if their is an issue within a group in which one identifies themselves with, it will affect their social identity. Say if the conflict was something traumatizing, it would make a person want to dissociate with that one identity.

Emancipation (feeder 3.1)

Jones, Donald C. Literacy, Orality, and Silence: "Reading" the Exigencies of Oppression in    

                Fredrick Douglass' 1845 “Narrative" . Washington, DC, 1995. Print.

            The paper, Literacy, Orality, and Silence: "Reading" the Exigencies of Oppression in Fredrick Douglass' 1845 “Narrative”, was presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. This article shows an analytic review on how Douglass used literacy in different ways to gain freedom and became liberated. He rebelliously used orality, silence and literacy to resist/abolish slavery. He took a step forward with silence when he refused to obey his master and weakened his power. He used orality and literacy by publicly addressing people to raise their voices against enslavement and also by writing letter to aware them, language was a key in this case. He was willing to do anything that he traded pieces of breads with poor kids to learn reading. That's how his will power lead him to the freedom eventually.
            This article relates to essay #2 topic. As essay 2 shows that liberation can be achieved by willing to learn and by reading about surrounded world, the similar concept can be seen in this article where Fredrick Douglass is willing to learn and uses literacy to gain freedom. As he said “he raved, and swore his determination to get hold of me. I didn’t allow myself a single word.”(Douglass #13) it shows that he took a step forward to deny his master’s command when he asked him to obey him. even though he had to gone through severe oppression but he didn’t stop and determined himself to raise voice against slavery more and more. The same thing  was done by Richard Rodriguez,  when he participated in class and gained self-confidence. It was his step towards “freedom”, to find his identity. Moreover, Douglass helped white children by giving them bread to learn reading, which shows that he was willing to learn to know more about slavery, emancipated himself to abolish the concept of slavery. The same thing Marjane did, when she devoted her time on reading about politics  to find the truth behind the Islamic Revolution and to liberate herself. However, Douglass used his orality/language, as a public speaker, to insist people against slavery. As he said “ I have no language to express [our] high excitement and deep anxiety . . . We had no more voice in that decision [regarding their punishment] than the brutes among whom we were ranked. A single word from the white men was enough”, it shows that he used his power of words/language to encourage people to gain freedom. That’s how, as Douglass’ literacy became more critical, this knowledge enabled Douglass to to re-position himself, to become an independent person from a slave, encouraged people to raise voice for themselves, and to find his own reality that how slavery kept him away from his own identity. But as he became liberated, he get confronted with his own reality and find a way to freedom. 


18 May 2014

Mission: Identity

"Black Students At White Colleges Fear They'll Lose Their Cultural Identity: Study" http://www.huffingtonpost.com/

This article talks about speaks about how "[Black students] feel tension between integrating into the dominant culture while honoring their own culture and black pride" study by author Jake Simmons, assistant professor of communication studies at Angelo State University concluded.

“As a group, African-American students wanted to assimilate into their respective universities, but at the same time they expressed a need to maintain cultural independence by segregating from them,” the authors wrote. “The need to segregate was born out of a fear that the African-American culture would become less independent and more similar to the dominant culture.”

"Students reported feeling different from their white peers in thought, language, dress, and socializing, as well as in the classroom, where they said a lack of understanding about their own culture led to feelings of being singled out. They also noted feelings of frustration about being solely responsible for educating whites about African-American issues and being asked to share their thoughts on African-American topics exclusively." The article says.

In my essay 2 I speak about the how it most minority Americans lose a piece their identity by trying to fit in with American society. Even through this article targets African American other races in the stories like American Born Chinese and Hunger of Memory have also went through problems like being cast out and not with trying to become apart of which seems to be the dominant race.

16 May 2014

Language defines identity


In the book I'm reading Language and Identities by Carmen llamas and Dominic watt. The authors talks about how language and your identity go hand and hand. That simply by you being of a certain gender, race or religious group that along help with the creation of your identity; language topping the list of what makes your identity and when stripped of your language you are being stripped of your personally and what makes you as a individual. In chapter 2 of the book Language & Identities the authors had you say on there views and thoughts on language and the correlation that both have with each other." When we use language, we do so as individuals with social histories. Our histories are defined in part by our membership in a range of social groups into which we are born such as gender, social class, language, religion and race "the book also talks bout the how your history within society helps shape the way you speak also the language one might rather prefer to speak because of ones social class.

In my essay two I heavily discuss the fact of language blends into an individuals life helps create ones identity and this article helps he in a great deal. The authors in the book Language and identities also talk bout how language is also developed by ones area and that along determines what you may be more comfortable with and accustom to speaking for example people who are born in the south are known as southerners while others form the north are referred to as northerners and may even speak the same standard language but may not actually sound alike because of the geographical difference creates a differences in language or dialects within language with ties back to the topic of my essay being the point that one historic background helps shape culture and language in the same way and denying one to use their language is basically getting rid of their culture partly.

15 May 2014

Bilingual Identities

Williams, Alan, and Charlotte Setijadi-dunn. "Visiting 'Home': Contacts With The Homeland, Self-Reflexivity And Emergent Migrant Bilingual Identities." TESOL In Context 21.1 (2011): 42-58. Education Source. Web. 15 May 2014.

The article “Visiting ‘Home’: Contacts with the homeland, self-reflexivity and emergent migrant bilingual identities” by Alan Williams & Charlotte Setijadi-Dunn  “Presents information on the feelings and experiences of two adult EAL learners learning English in the AMEP (Adult Migrant Education Program), in relation to their developing bilingual, intercultural identities.”(pg.1) it details how bilingual identities are achieve. The article presents us the journey of two individuals who migrate from their home countries of China and Colombia with their Australian spouses, to Australia, and during their process of learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) in their new home their identities were slowly changing. The two participants in the article Xiao Mei and Lila didn’t notice their change in identity until they visit their homelands, and notice the difference in their family dynamics. Xiao Mei explains how interesting it was noticing the changes in her identity, and even though she had an internal struggle with herself, she enjoyed her evolution. In Lila’s case before gaining her new identity she was not able to express herself without the help of her mother or older sister, with her new identity she is more confident and sure of herself. Williams and Dunn explain how identity is usually thought of in an anthropological way, and how identity should be thought of as “a fluid and continuous process of ‘becoming’ instead as a fixed and definable state of ‘being’” (pg.3). Williams and Dunn state how the fact that they moved to Australia being in an intercultural relationship, might have helped them move faster in the development of their new identities.

This article relates to my essay 2 topic, because it has to do with how different identities can be achieved by integrating oneself to a new language and culture, and how a new identity can help us rediscover ourselves. “Identity is a fluid and continuous process of ‘becoming’ instead as a fixed and definable state of ‘being’” (pg.3). This explains how you don’t need to have a set identity that as we grow so does our identity. In essay 2 Alexie shows that you can gain a new identity through a new language to him that new language was books and being able to read and write. Gaining a new identity doesn't always mean to give up who you were before, but it allows you to learn more about yourself.

Feeder 3.1

     In Irene Assiba D'Ameida's essay within the excerpt, Veronique 1995 - Black Literature Criticism: Classic and Emerging Authors since 1950, she speaks on author Côte d'Ivoirian Tadjo's first novel, In A Vol d'oiseau, brining light to the major ideas presented in the text; "L'histoire de la misère se raconte" [The story of poverty must be told] and "L'amour est une histoire qu'on n'arrête pas de conter" [Love is a story that one never ceases to tell]". Irene shows how Tadjo's work ties together ideas of pain and love through "a multitude of stories, some taken from personal life, news items, or reflections, some allegorical" yet having "no single setting, but a variety of loci, no conventional plot, no real successiveness". Tadjo connects to the readers through a "stream of consciousness" or "nouveau roman"  enabling her to constantly shift directions "to move from one part of the world to another, to speak of the most diverse themes ranging from love and art to social and political issues" giving "a message of justice, creativity, hope, and self-reliance, all positive values" as well as bringing awareness to the difficulty in doing such within "a world whose social fabric has been badly damaged". Miss. Tadjo speaks as one who's been through her own trials and tribulations and gives her story as a primary witness attesting to the damaged world we as people live within; as well as showing how her ideas of pain and love tie everyone together. 

Irene states; "Writing has allowed women to speak the unspeakable, to utter words, ideas, concepts that are forbidden to them within the conventions laid out by patriarchal society. Sex, desire, passion, and love are topics that women are expected to pass over in silence. By transgressing these taboos through the medium of literature, writers such as Calixthe Beyala, Ken Bugul, Werewere Liking, and Véronique Tadjo break the unwritten conventions while still accepting, as positive value, the topology that regards women as emotionally sensitive; thus they reclaim the right to express their feelings. In A Vol d'oiseau, the protagonist admits to living through her skin. She does not hesitate to speak of the body as a seat of enjoyable sensations. She talks freely about everything from the tickle of water running on her skin in the shower to the intense pleasures of orgasm. The erotic sensuality of the following passage shows no recognition of the usual taboos that regulate the parameters of African women's discourse: "Je m'enveloppe de son odeur, mouille mon visage de sa sueur, touche sa peau, mords son épaule, avale son désir, ferme les yeux, tends mon corps, l'appelle et le rejette" [I wrap myself in his smell, wet my face with his sweat, touch his skin, bite his shoulder, swallow his desire, close my eyes, stretch my body, call and expel him]". Through this excerpt in A Vol d'oiseau Côte d'Ivoirian Tadjo gives life to the words she laces together to create a story within the minds of the readers. Tadjo 's execution in such gives a voice not only to her personal vantage point but to the female sex; stripping down set precedents for women to be the quiet, shy, and humble species, through this she stands as an outspoken leader giving women a sense of confidence and independence. Miss. Tadjo shows how language can be the key to enabling people, not only women, as a whole to break through barriers set within the past era's. 

Tadjo, Véronique 1955–

Social Identity

Deaux, Kay. “Social Identity.” Encyclopedia of Women and Gender, Volumes One and Two, 2006: n. pag. Web. 15 May 2014.

The article “Social Identity” by Kay Deaux is about social identity and the different types of them that there are. She begins by giving the definition of social identification. Social Identity, according to Deaux is “the process by which we define ourselves in terms and categories that we share with other people.” In her first section, she talks about the different concepts and definitions of social identity. Which goes to her second section, “Types of Social Identity.” Here, she breaks down the different groups of which people identify themselves with others such as race, gender, political affiliation, etc. She goes on in the same section with subsections that differentiates the different social identity groups. She also talks about the different aspects of social identity and how those aspects are used to categorize someone within a particular social group. Deaux speaks on how people have favored identities and how certain cultures influence which identity one chooses to have present. In the end, she talks about how people shift between social groups throughout their lives.

This article relates to my topic because it is all about social identity. It gives a more in depth look into the entire subject of identity, including the different types of social identities and how one is categorized into each group. She gives definitions and information on each topic that she introduces. She makes it simple to understand social identity because of the amount of information she provides and how understanding she makes it. This will be good for my third essay because it can be used throughout the essay. Meaning I can use the first section or two to merely introduce my topic and talk about the different types of social identities then go on to how one is categorized and how they negotiate identities and so forth.

07 May 2014

Just wanted to share.

a friend of mine had shown me this video and i found it super interesting and had a long conversation on the topic. just wanted to share see what you guys think.

05 May 2014


Epic is the pilot, to a new series of comics. It relates the story of Eric Ardor a 16 year old boy, who becomes a superhero. He becomes a super hero in a very comical way; he gets his powers by crashing into an unstable DNA research lab. After figuring out he has super powers, like any other teen would do, he shows his best friend his new found abilities. As he starts using his powers, he notices that they sometimes don’t work. The comic ends him and his best friend figuring out that his only weakness is …girls!

I thought this comic was okay, it’s pretty funny especially when he loses his powers, when he seems to need them the most. This comic might be easy to relate to, because it deals with the main character’s struggle as a teen and high school student. 

last page

03 May 2014


The New 52: Futures End #0

          Futures end #0 is an introduction to a new series of comic, in which the land of humans ( super-heroes) has been overtaken by evil called Brother Eye.  The electronic program, Brother Eye moves around and destroys the Earth while assimilating all the humans who gets in it way. It eventually leads to the collision of past and future, where Batman travels back in time to destroy the Brother Eye before its created.


30 April 2014


       In a recent article I read titled Suite For Ebony and phonics by John Rickford where in the early 90's this Oakland school board has approved a resolution that was recognized as a primary language of African American students. the reaction of most people across the country in the media, at holiday gatherings and a electronic bulletin boards was overwhelming  negative. in the flash flood of emails on America on online. Ebonics was described as lazy English, bastardized English poor grammar, and fractured slang. Oakland's decision to recognize Ebonics and use it to facilitate mastery of standard English also elicited superlative of negativity ridiculous ludicrous "very, very stupid" a terrible mistake.

Dear Mr.. Rickford,
           I currently read an article Written by you titled Suite for ebony and phonics and I'm actually glad you brought this to my attention and for many different reasons. One reason being that Ebonics is actually a form of commutation in my eyes and is used highly among people where its happens to have largely a vast amount of multicultural people also use Ebonics and not only African Americans which gives use the understanding that it isn't just slang but actually a language like the English language or any language in this case. In the article the spoke shamefully on the idea of it being taught in school which can be understandable if Ebonics didn't follow rules to but it actually does have rules to it like the English language has rules which is only usually applied when writing as far as punitions and thing of that nature but not when simply commutating between parties. They even called it a fractured slang but when you look at it from a larger view when language's are created they usually are fractions or pieces of other words which all ready exist not saying its stolen but its understood and then given a slightly curve to it where its now has its know identity in the sense for example the word "icon" meaning a person or thing regarded as a representative symbol of something. which comes form the Greek word eikon  which has nearly the same definition meaning a visual representation and all the English language didn't was change the spelling when adapting the word to its culture but you don't hear people calling the English language a bastardized language or fractured Greek so why not take Ebonics serious and allow it to be taught in school as part of the African American culture.

29 April 2014

A Strong Argument for Ebonics in Education

Towards the late 90’s, the School Board of Oakland, California announced that Ebonics has become the official language of African American students in that area. They felt that this form of “language” should be recognized and many linguists feel that this is the right decision when educating African American youth when it comes to improving literacy skills.  Many linguists believe that it could be used as a tool to help teach these students how to improve their Standard English.  John Rickford, a linguist, once said, “The support of linguists for this approach may strike nonlinguists as unorthodox, but that is where our principles—and the evidence—lead us.” After reading Rickford’s article, I have to agree with him.  There seems to be much evidence that accepting Ebonics as a form of the English language, and studying its similarities and difference to Standard English in the classroom, could lead to a higher rate of improving literacy skills amongst African –American students.

Any one can have an opinion, however when studies or experiments are performed that back up someone’s opinion, I tend to listen to them a little more closely and feel like their opinion has more credibility.  Without evidence, who can really say that one idea is better than another?  Fortunately for Linguist’s like John Rickford, there seems to be some evidence that strongly supports his view on Ebonics.  In John Rickford’s article, Suite for Ebony and Phonics it explains that “there is experimental evidence both from the United States and Europe that mastering the standard language might be easier if the differences in the student vernacular and Standard English were made explicit rather than entirely ignored.”(p. 28)   After reading this, it made me think about how I heard on the news once that another study showed that children who are truly bilingual often end  scoring higher on many achievement tests when compared to monolingual peers. Could teaching both using Ebonics and Standard English in classrooms lead to higher performance down the line for African American students?  One particular study mentioned in Rickford’s study might actually show that this could be true.

Outside of Chicago, at Aurora University, inner-city African-American students were taught English using a unique strategy.  The style of teaching used with these students “contrasted Standard English and Ebonics features through explicit instruction and drills. After eleven weeks, this group showed a 59 percent reduction in their use of Ebonics features in their Standard English writing.  But a control group taught by conventional methods showed an 8.5 percent in such features. “ (p.28) This study strongly supports the idea that the Oakland School Board suggested for the instruction of their students. Using Ebonics in the classroom can be a very useful tool.  The students who worked on writing the traditional way actually showed an increase of the use of Ebonics in their writing. However, the group that used Ebonics as a tool to improve Standard English showed a huge decrease in their use of Ebonic features while writing.  By focusing on using a language the African American students already knew very well, they were able to compare and contrast it with Standard English, which probably helped them wrap around the Standard English.  They now knew what to avoid doing while trying to write in Standard English. By ignoring Ebonics, their familiar language, it seemed to stunt the other groups’ growth. I believe this simply happened because they did not know what Ebonic features they should avoid using while writing an academic paper. 

Black Phonics

                 According too John Rick ford "Ebonics" means the black phonics. The article "Suite for Ebony and Phonics" is a very interesting article that interprets Ebonics as bastard and lazy English and also poor grammar. Which is said to be a slang only used by African Americans not all African Americans do use it. Even though it was started by African Americans the standard is not Ebonics, but Ebonics is also not determined as its on language but just the modern day slang John Rickford a linguistic professor and director of the Center for African American studies at Stanford University states that Ebonics is deriving from both "ebony" and  "phonics" which means black sounds.

Dear John Rick ford,

             While reading your article I personally believe the real reason why linguistic believe Ebonics is not determined as a langauge is because of the type of people that use it such as African Americans. We face sterotypes based on how we speak and the color of our skin. English maybe different from Ebonics but more and more each day other racial groups beyond us blacks use ebonics aka slag each day. Instead of Ebonics being a language its a quick play of using words which turns it into slang which most perfer today


Black English the New English

"Black English" is it a way of life? Can it be a way of expressing yourself in your own way? In the essay Nobody Mean More to Me Than You, and the Future Life of Willie Jordan by June Jordan, she goes in depth about the the usage of "Black English." She goes on by stating rules on how to use "Black English", like for example it is not all about swearing or just trowing words together but to have a pattern and rhythm of speech. In addition, "Black English" most of the times is wrong "Standard English" and you did not have to worry about spelling. As well as, stating that most of the Afro-Americans living in the United States depend on this language to communicate and to express a way of though. June was teaching her class about this way because she noticed that the class was not interested in a book called The Color Purple by Alice Walker that was written in "Standard English." Well the class was not interested in the book until the teacher asked the class to translate a section of the book into "Black English" was when the class started to catch interest in the book. She had a very special bond with a student of hers named Willie J. Jordan Jr. a very intelligent man, very shy, always on time to class and was always into the discussions with in the class. Until one day, Willie just stop showing up to class and was not heard from for quite awhile until he reached out to his teacher one day. She then found out about his brother being shot by police officers while being unarmed. She was heart broken to find out that tragedy that had occurred. She wanted to tell the world of this tragedy she wrote letters to try to get them on the newspaper or on the T.V. so they can raise money to prosecute the murder of Willie's brother. They never raised the money for the prosecution but Willie did write an essay in "Black English" and "Standard English" expressing how he felt about his brothers death and about making changes in society

I believe the point June was trying to make with this essay was that, no matter who you are, where you come from, what you are, who you may be come, it does not matter because in this society we are being molded into what society think we should be but we do not need to change who we are how we feel, how we express ourselves, how we communicate with one another. This is why I think she wrote about "Black English" to tell us that even though we have rules and mandatory languages that have to be learn but that does not have to mean that we can not be different in our own ways. For many year the "Man" has put an image into our head of what the ideal man(person) should be, how should he represent him self, how should he speak. We are all different in our own ways and that is what makes us unique. I believe June added Willies entire essay to show the reader how Willie expressed himself and communicated with his readers in his style of text "Black English."

Suite For Ebony & Phonics

Suite For Ebony & Phonics by John Rickford, linguistic professor and director of The Center For African American Studies at Stanford University, gives a form of awareness to the masses on first and foremost what Ebonics is ("Deriving from both "ebony" and "phonics", meaning black sounds"; basically an English dialect founded to be spoken by majorly African Americans, not all - "more common among working class than among middle class speakers, among adolescents than among the middle age, and informal contexts (a conversation in the street) rather than formal ones (sermon at church) or writing).  Rickford also gives insight upon the action taken by Oakland School Board to approve "a resolution recognizing Ebonics as the primary language of African American students". With Oakland's decision in such action controversy was derived by many linguists expressing Ebonics as "lazy English , bastardized English , poor grammar , fractured slang and continued to say Oakland's decision to recognize Ebonics and use it to facilitate mastery of Standard English as ridiculous , ludicrous , Very Very stupid , and a terrible mistake." Based of the three founding principles linguists derive their practices from "1. describe how people talk - not to judge how language should or shouldn't be used ... 2. All language, if they have enough speakers, have dialects - regional or social varieties that develop when people are separated by geographic or social barriers ... 3. All languages and dialects are systematic and rule governed" thus Ebonics cannot be labeled as "slang". Rickford goes on to say "Ebonics is more of a dialect of English than a separate language, because it shares many words and other features with other informal varieties of American English. And it's speakers can easily communicate with speakers of other American English dialects." Rickford gives clear example through this excerpt to show how Ebonics is indeed a dialect of English giving Ebonics sentences ("He runnin , He be runnin , He  Bin runnin") and even did an experiment where he "presented the Ebonics sentence "She BIN Married" to 25 whites and 25 African Americans from various parts of the United States asking if they understood the speaker to be married or not ... 23 of the African Americans said yes, only 8 of the whites gave the correct answer". This shows that Ebonics is relevant and can be understood through different cultures but more importantly it is a form of English dialect.

Dear Mr. Rickford ,

Personally I believe linguists see a problem within the use of Ebonics that others don't. The underlying issue I feel is more than just Ebonics itself but more of whom uses it, African Americans/the minority - thus linguists label it as "Lazy English , Bastardized English , Poor Grammar and Fractured Slang". Through these labels, there is a sense that this issue derives from more than what the linguists make it out to be; Ebonics itself can't be a dialect based off the people who execute and practice it. As for the general public, their perception of language use and varieties is different compared to linguists due to the fact the general public is born and embedded into a lifestyle affected by their surroundings; in short the customs of a regular civilian is completely different from that of a professional whom studies the use and varieties of language itself, the value for the actual art of language would be different for each party.

28 April 2014

Black Sounds

Suite for Ebony and Phonics written by John Rickford speaks about Ebonics which means black phonics. Ebonics is describe as lazy English, bad grammar and fractured slang.Mr Rickford give a reason why some people think that Ebonics not an actual language but just "lazy English" or a short cut to say words easier or faster.The evidence of this are examples on page 279 where it says"He bin runnin.("He has been running.")" and this is just one of the four examples. Most Linguists who study sounds, words and grammars of different languages and dialects agree that Ebonics is more of a dialect of English than a separate language. The last sentence where it says" The support of linguists for this approach may strike non linguists as unorthodox, but that is where our principles and the evidence lead us.", I believe that this sentence means that learning Ebonics would help to learn Standard English because it would help other people know how to talk in different situations when they call for them like when your talking to your friends or when you are at job interview. It may seem weird and unorthodox to non linguists but sometimes weird things or the way that things are being said can be beneficial.

proper english or just slang?

"Nobody Mean More To Me Than You, and the Future Life of Willie Jordan"

  This story is about black English and white English. The story starts off with the author explaining how majority of African Americans living here depend on their black English for our discovery of the world. Also the author writes how there is also a group of people that will not support people to be themselves but to becomes clones of people and talk and act the same as everyone else. African Americans have to change how they talk completely to please other people around them so they can sound more smart and educated. They have to become someone they are not because other people say its right. Black English is considered a endangered species because no one is using it anymore because people look at it as improper English. "White English" is considered proper, supreme , and unquestioned.  The story is about a teacher teaching a new course called "In search of the invisible black woman", and the teacher had a large class divided by a equal amount of black men and women and five or six white students also sat in the class. There was a student named Willie Jordan he looked like a wrestler he looked like he didn't belong in that type of class because of what was being taught. He didn't join in when his classmates were being loud. He was though very interested in the discussions. When it was his turn to present his argument he spoke with clarity and sincerity. his brother un armed was killed by two police officers at the age of twenty five. The police never gave his family a real explanation of why he was killed. The teacher tried to secure legal counsel for the Jordan family. unfortunately black victims of police violence is so high and the resources available to prosecute their killers are truly scarce. with Willies permission the teacher presented the case to her class. They had talked about many subjects in her class from sex and child abuse and men and women. But the murder of Reggie Jordan broke like a hurricane across the room. Many of the students respected and liked Willie Jordan and came from the same neighborhood as where the murder occurred. Many of them had family and friends that were killed by police. They wanted to avenge death all at once. They wanted to write personal statements of condolences to Willie Jordan and his family written in black English. They also wanted to write to the police in black English and last they wanted the letters sent to Newsday. Newsday rejected their piece , the village voice could not find room for their piece , no one raised enough money to prosecute the murder of Reggie Jordan. Reggie Jordan was really 

question number 6: 

When I read this passage it made me emotionally because it made me think why should the students have a tough descion to make when it comes to what form of English to use ? Why can't they just feel comfortable using their own "black English" that's how they speak they should be able to express themselves In the way they feel like. The police killed Willie Jordan's brother which was unarmed for no good reason. They should be able to send the police personal letters in "black English" because that is the best way they can express themselves they shouldn't have to write in a certain way to please other people because others think it's the right way. If I was there I would agree they should use "black English" because I believe they should be able to express themselves and feel comfortable when writing their statements  to the police about the killing of Willie Jordan's brother. I would discuss that the African Americans in my class should write a group letter to the police describing in detail how they feel and to make sure it's in black English to make sure it is known to the police that the African Americas are a unit a team and aren't going to conform to a certain way of speaking to please anyone because that's not right or fair. 

27 April 2014

Dialect OR Slang ?

In the essay "Suite for Ebony and Phonics” by John Rickford, he explains what Ebonics is, and the issues people have with it accepting it as an English dialect, and not slang. He discusses the controversies it raised when it was approved as an English dialect. The approval of Ebonics as a primary language of African American students in the Oakland school board caused a major uproar in the public. The majority of the respond towards it was highly negative. People where describing Ebonics as “lazy English” “bad grammar” and “fractured slang”, and Oakland’s decision to recognize Ebonics and used it to facilitate the mastery of Standard English, also received negative critique, calling their decision “ludicrous, very very stupid, and a terrible mistake”. Nonetheless linguists, who study dialects, sounds, words, and grammar, thought more positively of Ebonics, and didn't think the Oakland school board was at a wrong with their decision. A claim Mr. Rickford made in this essay is that linguists identify Ebonics as an English dialect. “The ‘rules’ of the dialect do not allow the deletion of the second consonant at the end of a word unless both, are either voiceless, as in ‘st’ or voiced as in ‘nd’” (pg.281) this supports the claim because it gives an example as how Ebonics isn’t a slang or lazy, it has rules, that wouldn't be used if indeed it was a lazy language.   

Mr. Rickford
I think linguists see the issue of Ebonics differently than the general public, because they have a more broad understanding of what language is. Like you stated in "Suite for Ebony and Phonics” linguists don’t judge how a language is used, linguists describe how people talk. A lot of people might think that language has only one set of specific rules, but languages have a lot different dialects depending on where a person lives. Contrary to what some people might think, linguists agree that Ebonics is not “fractured slang” or a “lazy language”, it is an English dialect. As noted in your essay, according to the experimental studies made in both the United States and Europe it might be easier to master a language if the differences between a student’s dialect and Standard English were made clear. People who are not well informed in Ebonics and or how languages work are not going to understand that it is not “lazy language” but a dialect of English and that it has its own set of laws.



John Rickford

In the Article "Suite For Ebony And Phonics" by John Rickford is a about a slang Ebonics which is described as "lazy English," "bastarized English," "poor grammar," that the language is nothing more than just distinction between standard English language and a Lazy English Language. " While its features are found most commonly among African Americans ( Ebonics is itself derived from "ebony" and "phonics," meaning "black sounds"), not all African American speak it. The features of Ebonics, Especially the distinctive tenses, are more common among working-class than among middle-class speakers, among adolescents than among the middle-aged, and informal contexts (a conversation on the street) rather than formal ones (a sermon at church) or writing.(page 281)" Even though it came from African Americans the standard English language is not a Ebonics,but also is not interpreted as its own language as Ebonics interpreted as slang.

Dear Mr.John Rickford,
After I was reading your article, I have came up with an answer of my own which I hope shine some light on your question. Because the study of Ebonics is not a language of English but find it to be more as ways of understanding and speaking slang. Since Ebonics " words pronunciation is another distinctive aspect of dialect, and the regularity of these difference can be very subtle. Most of the "rules" we follow when speaking standard English are obeyed unconsciously." But linguists needs to know that Ebonics can be or not be a Language, but people would always catch on to Ebonics words quicker with out the studies. Linguist could find that more understanding without seeing the distinction between the both Ebonics slang and English Language of pronunciations. And wont have arguments in which if Ebonics is a language but to be a appreciated of all the differences it have.



       In the article, Suite for Ebony and Phonics, John Rickford has discussed the issue of ebonics as a language versus a dialect of English. While ebonics simply means 'black speech' (a blend of the words ebony 'black' and phonics ‘sounds'). However, many arguments has been made referring ebonics as a completely different language. In this case, the author claims that ebonics is a dialect since there is similarities to standard English that form a strong bond. The evidence for that has been provided in article when author stated “ Ebonics is more of a dialect of English than a separate language, because it shares many words and other features with other informal varieties of American English. And its speakers can easily communicate with speakers of other American English dialects.” ( pg-279). This supports the claim because when people can talk and understand each other, that means they’ve understandable/common way communicating. Because the two "languages" differ when it comes to grammatical structures, but the words are similar in both languages. 

Dear Mr. John Rickford,
I read your article, Suite for  Ebony and Phonics, and it was so helpful for me to enlighten myself  on similarities and differences of ebony and Standard English. And also how it came into being. However, concerning to the question you asked “ why linguists see the issue [of Ebonics] differently from most other people”, I would say it has to do with research and study. Linguists study all of the features and characteristics of a particular language (ex: ebonics) in details while other people don’t. General public, who don’t study languages, may not be able to come up with distinct rules of grammar and pronunciation (regarding to ebonics, standard English and slang), unless they would start any research on it. However, people can become aware of all this when linguists notify people by using media resources and also by spreading the idea of informing students about language differences and similarities.


Syeda Abbas

26 April 2014


The article from John Rickford, in short, is about Ebonics. Ebonics basically means "black phonics," according to Rickford. Throughout the article, Rickford explains why some people feel Ebonics is not a language, but more so "lazy English." While linguist see the distinction between Ebonics and standard English. The claim of the article is the Ebonics is not standard English but it also not it's own language. Evidence to support this claim is on page 28 where Rickford says, "This is not permitted in Ebonics; the 'rules' of the dialect do not allow the deletion of the second consonants are either voiceless, as with 'st,' or voiced, as with 'nd.'...In short, the manner in which Ebonics differs from Standard English is highly ordered; it is no more lazy English than Italian is lazy Latin. This support the claim because where Italian is derived from Latin but has its own rules of how to properly speak the language, that is the case with Ebonics.

Dear Mr. John Rickford,
After reading your article, I believe I came up with an answer for your question as to why "linguists see the issue [of Ebonics] so differently from most other people." For starters, I believe it has to do with the fact that linguist study every aspect of Ebonics from the words used to how it's pronounced, where as other people do not. Linguists agree that Ebonics is not a separate language from English, but it is also noted that they do not believe it is simply "slang." In your article you mention that Ebonics has some form of grammar and "distinctive patterns of pronunciation." Since  most people have not studied Ebonics to the extent that linguists have, they will not particularly see the distinction between Ebonics and slang and Standard English. Being that linguists know and appreciate these differences, they are able to have a set argument on why or why not Ebonics is actually another language. But, what linguists need to understand is that people who do not study language will not pick up on the minor things that differentiates Ebonics, slang and Standard English, which is why they would prefer for Ebonics (slang in their minds) to not be used over Standard English.

Aliyah Allen

24 April 2014

Persepolis Summary

Persepolis (1-2 ) by Marjane Satrapi

       Persepolis is Marjane Satrapi’s, the main character and narrator, memoir of growing up in Iran during the Islamic Revolution and the second Iran and Iraq war. In 1979, Islamic Revolution took place. The concepts of  bilingualism and co-education were abolished. Moreover, women were forced to wear veil by those that called for cultural revolution in Iran. People started to protest, there were both, people who supported this “cultural revolution” and people who were against. Marjane’s parents and relatives, including grandma and Uncle Anoosh, were used to attend these political protests to raise voice for their rights. Because of her parents, grandma and uncle Anoosh, Marjane’s passion lied in social activism and to enlighten her on revolution her parents brought her books related to social and political issues. Moreover, to clear Marjane’s misconception that the King , Reza Shah, was chosen by God, her father told her the truth that Reza shah was a soldier who organized a putsch to overthrow the emperor and install a republic. An influential british man leaned about his putsch, and because he wanted to make money out of the country's oil he supported him. However, many people were beginning to die during revolution , so Shah’s rule became impossible and he had to step down. After the revolution, she got to meet Uncle Anoosh and learnt how he survived and was imprisoned, which created a “heroic” image of him in Marjane’s mind. Soon, they learnt that Anoosh has been executed on the false charges of being a Russian spy. She felt empty and alone. At that moment, Iran Iraq war began. The war intensified, food and rations were low in the country and tensions ran high amongst the people, Iran’s borders were closed, women weren’t allowed to step out without veil and with makeup on, having parties and celebrations was forbidden. The war became very bad with millions of people dying. However, Marjane grew up to become a "rebel" and, after a confrontation with one of her teachers, she got kicked out of school. Fearing that the country was no longer safe for their daughter, Mr and Mrs. Satrapi decided to send Marjane to Austria to attend a French school there, at the age of fourteen.

       Marjane,s problem began as soon as she arrived in Vienna. Zozo, the family friend ended up sending her to a boarding house among nuns. She met Lucia there who filled the space of a friend in Marjane’s life. Language was a huge issue for her which kept her isolated. However, as Marjane is outspoken and rebellious by nature, so a conflict with nun got her expelled but she managed to stay at her friend’s place. That’s how she began to assimilate herself, finding a personal identity and coming to terms with the reflecting state of West. Her journey was clashes. she had self image problems, hurtful love affairs (she fell in love with Markus and also got addicted to drugs but Markus betrayed her) , loneliness ( after Markus she had nobody with her). Which led her to depression but it wasn’t enough she also had to leave the place where she was living in because she was accused of stealing.Living on the streets made her so sick she coughed up blood. She survived, and moved back home to Iran.Giving up her freedoms was hard, but living with her family was what she needed. Her mom and dad treated her as an equal which helped her to get out of depression. she met her old friends and relative. While in Iran, she continued to  work what social activism she could like designing a new uniform with a shorter veil). she partied with friends. She met Reza, they fell in love and decided to get married. But after sometimes Marjane felt imprisoned and started to have conflicts with Reza. They tried but ended up getting divorced. All these things were to help her find her identity. After a few years, she realized that Iran wasn’t for her. She moved back to Europe.With the final quote of the book, "Freedom had a price."

Hunger of Memory

The excerpt I read from "Hunger of Memory" is about a young male named Richard Rodriguez. Initially, he struggles to learn and understand English but further reading goes to show he learns English then struggles to understand his first language, Spanish. First, Richard expresses how speaking Spanish with his family bought him joy. He also expressed how different life was for him at school and at home. With his family, Richard was outspoken and happy. While in his English-speaking school, he was quiet and afraid to talk because he knew he was no good at English. The nuns at Richard's school noticed the language barrier within his family and encouraged his parents to speak more English with Richard and his siblings. Richard, naturally, was still shy but paid very close attention to the way his peers would pronounced their words. Over time, Richard and his siblings spoke English very well, causing them to not speak Spanish at home. He also notes that his siblings made fun of their dad, who did not partake in their English conversations, for being shy. But Richard noticed that his father, in fact, was not shy. When around their Spanish-speaking family members, their father was extremely outspoken and interactive. Soon after strictly speaking English, hearing Spanish became a painful memory for Richard because it reminded him of the intimate memories he shared with his family.

I enjoyed reading this because I felt his happiness and sadness throughout the excerpt. I found humor in how he said they pronounced his name. I also feel bad because I feel like him being forced to learn English and not speak Spanish is ridiculous. He suppresses his Spanish identity to assume a more "American" identity to please society. I think it is good that he learned English but his parents and teachers should have tried to find a balance between the two languages. Without them doing that, it sort of implies that being different isn't always a good thing.